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How technology rewrites your diet

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Wherever you live, the last meal you had probably looked and tasted different from meals served in the same place 50 years ago. Advances in the way we grow, process, and transport food have given more people more options for what to eat than ever before.

Some foods sold today didn’t exist a decade ago. Other dietary staples look more or less the same as they always have, but are packaged and distributed in totally new ways. The next meal you make at home will, of course, be shaped by the tools and techniques you use to prepare it.

Your diet is determined in large part by your tastes and by the climate and culture where you live. But technology also plays a big role. Whether we look forward or back in time, we can see how new technologies change what and how we eat.

Such changes can come from many places: from engineers who develop a new kitchen appliance like the microwave or the multi-cooker, from food scientists who pioneer novel techniques to produce more plant-based foods, or from entrepreneurs who raise millions in venture capital funding to sell meal kits online.

The following experts describe some advances that have had a large impact on our food system, and others that will transform it again in the years ahead.


New ways to get around

Million Belay

Million Belay

COURTESY PHOTO

General coordinator, Alliance for Food Sovereignty in Africa (Ethiopia)

Horses are still the main mode of transport for many people in rural Ethiopia. Lately, though, new transportation options have prompted people I know to try different foods and abandon others their ancestors had eaten for centuries. About four years ago, for example, the only road that runs to and from a rural community called Telecho was improved. Soon, buses started to come. The village’s market grew bigger, and residents began drinking beer made at commercial breweries instead of from the barley they grew. Today, farmers there plant more eucalyptus to sell the timber to other communities. That has brought more money to Telecho, but also reduced the total number of crops produced there.


Personalized nutrition

Christine Gould

Christine Gould

COURTESY PHOTO

Founder and CEO, Thought for Food (Switzerland)

Per capita global food production has increased for decades. But having more food doesn’t mean people are better nourished. Diseases caused by unhealthy diets—such as obesity, diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular disease—are the primary cause of mortality in much of the world. 

One problem is that our scientific understanding of food is still rudimentary. At most, 150 biochemicals are listed in conventional nutrition databases. That’s a tiny fraction of the tens of thousands of compounds found in food. Some describe the many that remain unknown as “nutritional dark matter.” 

I see potential in the emerging field of personalized nutrition, which aims to combine new knowledge about such compounds with insights from an individual’s own genetics and microbiome to deliver customized dietary guidelines and plans. The goal is a world in which people are not just fed, but nourished.


Fine-tuning the farm

Marta Antonelli

Marta Antonelli

COURTESY PHOTO

Head of research, Barilla Foundation (Italy)

The challenge ahead of us is clear: Build a sustainable food system that can nourish a growing and increasingly urban world. I think precision agriculture will be a big part of the solution. With this approach, conventional farming practices such as watering and fertilizing crops are performed at the right place and time, and with the appropriate intensity. For example, irrigation systems that deliver water through slow drips cut water use by up to 60% compared with sprinklers. Finding more improvements like this will require a new technology “stack” for agriculture.


Buying and selling food online

Catherine L. Mah

Catherine Mah

GW SCHNITZLER

Canada Research Chair in Promoting Healthy Populations, Dalhousie University (Canada)

E-commerce has transformed the way people eat; covid-19 accelerated this trend. Apps and online payment services like Shopify helped many restaurants and retail food businesses stay open and gave customers a way to enjoy their favorite meals even while isolated at home. But the growth of e-commerce has revealed how governments struggle to ensure that the benefits of technological development fall to everyone. Our institutions have not created policies regulating online commerce in a way that protects the public interest. E-commerce has widened divides between smaller and larger companies, and between rural and urban consumers.


Fermenting at scale

Jaime Romero

Jaime Romero

COURTESY PHOTO

Associate professor in the Food Biotechnology Lab, University of Chile (Chile)

Fermentation is a powerful, natural process, and one of the oldest food preservation methods. However, it’s only in the past 50 years that scientists have come to understand fermentation well enough to sustain it at scale. Fermentation can take many forms, but they all involve enlisting some kind of bacteria, yeast, or other microbes to chemically alter another ingredient (typically sugar). The acids produced during this process naturally preserve the resulting food. Fermentation can create thousands of different foods and drinks, including sake, kombucha, beer, wine, cheese, yogurt, pickles, sauerkraut, and sourdough bread. I think industrial-scale fermentation has expanded our options at the grocery store more than most of us likely realize.



CRISPR crops

John Ruff

John Ruff

COURTESY PHOTO

Chief science and technology officer, Institute of Food Technologists (US)

People throw out 1.3 billion tons of edible food each year, yet 821 million people went hungry in 2018. CRISPR, a gene-­editing tool, can help us increase food production, decrease food waste, and enhance the nutritional value of the foods we eat. Already, scientists have used it to increase omega-3 levels in plants and reduce gluten levels in wheat. They’ve also developed non-browning apples, potatoes, and mushrooms that are less susceptible to damage during shipping and will keep longer on shelves and in refrigerators. Some are even creating drought-resistant rice and corn to protect our food supply against the adverse impacts of climate changea need that will become more urgent with time.


Packaging with less plastic

Jocelyn Eason

Jocelyn Eason

COURTESY PHOTO

General manager of science and food innovation, Plant & Food Research (New Zealand)

New packaging materials will allow many food producers to gradually move away from plastics, for good. During my lifetime, I’ve watched plastic become one of the biggest environmental hazards that we face as a society. Consumers want less of it in their lives, and regulators are beginning to ban or impose taxes on plastics used to package or serve food. Sooner or later, most producers will need to switch to more sustainable materials. Some alternatives are already available: Earthpac, a New Zealand company I’ve worked with, is using starch recovered from the wastewater of potato processing factories to make biodegradable trays, plates, and punnets (the small green baskets in which berries are often sold). Another client, Meadow Mushrooms, is making packaging from the stalks removed from mushrooms during processing.

Lyron Foster is a Hawaii based African American Musician, Author, Actor, Blogger, Filmmaker, Philanthropist and Multinational Serial Tech Entrepreneur.

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Daily Crunch: Alphabet shuts down Loon

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Alphabet pulls the plug on its internet balloon company, Apple is reportedly developing a new MacBook Air and Google threatens to pull out of Australia. This is your Daily Crunch for January 22, 2021.

The big story: Alphabet shuts down Loon

Alphabet announced that it’s shutting down Loon, the project that used balloons to bring high-speed internet to more remote parts of the world.

Loon started out under Alphabet’s experimental projects group X, before spinning out as a separate company in 2018. Despite some successful deployments, it seems that Loon was never able to find a sustainable business model.

“While we’ve found a number of willing partners along the way, we haven’t found a way to get the costs low enough to build a long-term, sustainable business,” Loon CEO Alastair Westgarth wrote in a blog post. “Developing radical new technology is inherently risky, but that doesn’t make breaking this news any easier.”

The tech giants

Apple reportedly planning thinner and lighter MacBook Air with MagSafe charging — The plan is reportedly to release the new MacBook Air as early as late 2021 or 2022.

Google threatens to close its search engine in Australia as it lobbies against digital news code — Google is dialing up its lobbying against draft legislation intended to force it to pay news publishers.

Cloudflare introduces free digital waiting rooms for any organizations distributing COVID-19 vaccines — The goal is to help health agencies and organizations tasked with rolling out COVID-19 vaccines to maintain a fair, equitable and transparent digital queue.

Startups, funding and venture capital

‘Slow dating’ app Once is acquired by Dating Group for $18M as it seeks to expand its portfolio — Once has 9 million users on its platform, with an additional 1 million users from a spin-out app called Pickable.

MotoRefi raises $10M to keep pedal on auto refinancing growth — CEO Kevin Bennett sees the opportunity to service Americans who collectively hold $1.2 trillion in auto loans.

Backed by Vint Cerf, Emortal wants to protect your digital legacy from ‘bit-rot’ —  Emortal is a startup that wants to help you organize, protect, preserve and pass on your “digital legacy” and protect it from becoming unreadable.

Advice and analysis from Extra Crunch

How VCs invested in Asia and Europe in 2020 — The unicorns are feasting.

End-to-end operators are the next generation of consumer business — VC firm Battery has tracked seismic shifts in how consumer purchasing behavior has changed over the years.

Drupal’s journey from dorm-room project to billion-dollar exit — Twenty years ago, Drupal and Acquia founder Dries Buytaert was a college student at the University of Antwerp.

(Extra Crunch is our membership program, which helps founders and startup teams get ahead. You can sign up here.)

Everything else

UK resumes privacy oversight of adtech, warns platform audits are coming — The U.K.’s data watchdog has restarted an investigation of adtech practices that, since 2018, have been subject to scores of complaints under GDPR.

Boston Globe will consider people’s requests to have articles about them anonymized — It’s reminiscent of the EU’s “right to be forgotten,” though potentially less controversial.

The Daily Crunch is TechCrunch’s roundup of our biggest and most important stories. If you’d like to get this delivered to your inbox every day at around 3pm Pacific, you can subscribe here.

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The far right’s favorite registrar is building ‘censorship-resistant’ servers

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“The digital divide is now a matter of life and death for people who are unable to access essential healthcare information,” said UN Secretary General António Guterres in June 2020. Almost half the global population currently has no internet access, and many who do cannot freely access all information sources. 

Freedom House, which tracks internet restrictions worldwide, says the coronavirus pandemic is accelerating a dramatic decline in global internet freedom. It found that governments in at least 28 countries censored websites and social media posts in 2020 to suppress unfavorable health statistics, corruption allegations and other COVID-19-related content.

Now, U.S. company Toki is building “school-in-a-box” devices to connect up to 1 billion people across Africa and Asia, using technologies that it claims could filter content to avoid some information sources and bypass local censorship. The devices will be Wi-Fi-ready servers that run on electric power or batteries and can handle dozens of concurrent users. If no networks are available, the servers will also come pre-installed with digital libraries curated to provide “locally relevant content.” 

One of Toki’s country managers describes on LinkedIn that the devices would also run a decentralized search engine, designed to be anonymous, private and censorship-resistant. They will be donated to communities in the developing world by a U.S. nonprofit* called eRise, which was founded in 2019 to, according to its website, “focus on digital empowerment initiatives that are capital-efficient, and which improve access to content, community and commerce.”

Both Toki and eRise were founded by entrepreneur and free speech advocate Rob Monster. Monster owns domain registration company Epik, which allowed controversial social network Parler to come briefly back online last week after the site was booted from Amazon’s cloud service. Parler is just one of several platforms enabled by Epik, and Monster’s other domain and web hosting companies, that have been home to far-right content. Parler is accused of hosting users that helped to coordinate the attack on the U.S. Capitol on January 6. 

The “school-in-a-box” would contain a memory card with educational content, games, books, maps and modules related to prayers, the story of religions and “the art of being grateful.” It says the device is intended for “parents who want their kids to be smarter and curious; schools who can’t afford a computer; [and] religious places who wish to spread awareness about education and empower the society.” 

But one researcher says this effort recalls Facebook’s heavily criticized project offering free connectivity in India, which spawned accusations of bias and self-censorship. 

“We’ve seen a similar tactic by Facebook, to provide digital access points that can also serve the purpose of delivering favorable content and ensuring that these groups become dependent on your benevolence,” said Dr. Joan Donovan, director of the Technology and Social Change Research Project at the Shorenstein Center. “It becomes that much harder later on to change the power dynamics when the ideology is in the infrastructure.”

Monster has used free speech arguments to defend Epik’s working with platforms that either welcome or tolerate extreme content. The Southern Poverty Law Center, which tracks hate groups, has been reported as saying that Monster “offers services to the most disreputable horrific people on the Internet.” 

Epik spokesperson Rob Davis told TechCrunch that Epik actively works with its clients to help them moderate content, and claimed that the company has deplatformed Nazi groups and deleted those promoting genocide.

“Lawful, responsible freedom of speech is an amazing right,” said Davis. “Every [domain registrar] has groups like this but Epik is often held to a higher standard.”

In a series of posts in 2019 on a forum dedicated to domain-name trading, Monster provided more details about the Toki technology. The servers would be powered by cheap Raspberry Pi processors and run a proprietary version of Linux that would enable file sharing, peer-to-peer commerce, a digital wallet and a personalized search engine, with the option of “ignoring certain data sources.” 

“Decentralization not only means decentralization of the narrative and talking points of big tech groups like Google, Twitter and Facebook,” said Epik’s Davis. “It also means anti-censorship by empowering people with things that they didn’t know.” The spokesperson gave the example of naturopathic remedies for minor health complaints. Naturopathic remedies have not been proven to be effective against COVID-19.

Eventually, each device might come pre-loaded with a “snapshot” of the internet, said Davis, although he did not describe how the internet might be reduced to fit on a single, small physical device. The eRise website notes that content would be curated by local digital librarians that it would recruit. Davis told TechCrunch that Toki has working models of its server, is already conducting field trials and hopes to start deploying the devices to 6,000 villages in Africa in 2022 or 2023, perhaps in collaboration with an unnamed Asian telecoms company. 

The Toki devices’ selectivity, if practical, could raise its own content and censorship concerns; for example, if eRise allowed extreme content similar to that seen on Epik’s clients like Gab and Parler, or ignored scientific advice on COVID-19 or other health issues. 

Donovan said she is wary of any one-box solution. “We have to focus on decoupling information companies from service providers,” she said. “That much control can be used for political gain. Technology is politics by other means.”

*Although eRise also claims on its website to be a 501(c)(3) nonprofit, which would exempt it from some taxes and allow tax-free donations, TechCrunch could not locate it on the IRS’s database of nonprofits. Monster later admitted eRise was not a registered 501(c)(3)).

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End-to-end operators are the next generation of consumer business

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At Battery, a central part of our consumer investing practice involves tracking the evolution of where and how consumers find and purchase goods and services. From our annual Battery Marketplace Index, we’ve seen seismic shifts in how consumer purchasing behavior has changed over the years, starting with the move to the web and, more recently, to mobile and on-demand via smartphones.

The evolution looks like this in a nutshell: In the early days, listing sites like Craigslist, Angie’s List* and Yelp effectively put the Yellow Pages online — you could find a new restaurant or plumber on the web, but the process of contacting them was largely still offline. As consumers grew more comfortable with the web, marketplaces like eBay, Etsy, Expedia and Wayfair* emerged, enabling historically offline transactions to occur online.

More recently, and spurred in large part by mobile, on-demand use cases, managed marketplaces like Uber, DoorDash, Instacart and StockX* have taken online consumer purchasing a step further. They play a greater role in the operations of the marketplace, from automatically matching demand with supply, to verifying the supply side for quality, to dynamic pricing.

The key purpose of being end-to-end is to deliver an even better value proposition to consumers relative to incumbent alternatives.

Each stage of this evolution unlocked billions of dollars in value, and many of the names listed above remain the largest consumer internet companies today.

At their core, these companies are facilitators, matching consumer demand with existing supply of a product or service. While there is no doubt these companies play a hugely valuable role in our lives, we increasingly believe that simply facilitating a transaction or service isn’t enough. Particularly in industries where supply is scarce, or in old-guard industries where innovation in the underlying product or service is slow, a digitized marketplace — even when managed — can produce underwhelming experiences for consumers.

In these instances, starting from the ground up is what is really required to deliver an optimal consumer experience. Back in 2014, Chris Dixon wrote a bit about this phenomenon in his post on “Full stack startups.” Fast forward several years, and more startups than ever are “full stack” or as we call it, “end-to-end operators.”

These businesses are fundamentally reimagining their product experience by owning the entire value chain, from end to end, thereby creating a step-functionally better experience for consumers. Owning more in the stack of operations gives these companies better control over quality, customer service, delivery, pricing and more — which gives consumers a better, faster and cheaper experience.

It’s worth noting that these end-to-end models typically require more capital to reach scale, as greater upfront investment is necessary to get them off the ground than other, more narrowly focused marketplacesBut in our experience, the additional capital required is often outweighed by the value captured from owning the entire experience.

End-to-end operators span many verticals

Many of these businesses have reached meaningful scale across industries:

All of these companies have recognized they can deliver more value to consumers by “owning” every aspect of the underlying product or service — from the bike to the workout content in Peloton’s case, or the bank account to the credit card in Chime’s case. They have reinvented and reimagined the entire consumer experience, from end to end.

What does success for end-to-end operator businesses look like?

As investors, we’ve had the privilege of meeting with many of these next-generation end-to-end operators over the years and found that those with the greatest success tend to exhibit the five key elements below:

1. Going after very large markets

The end-to-end approach makes the most sense when disrupting very large markets. In the graphic above, notice that most of these companies play in the largest, but notoriously archaic industries like banking, insurance, real estate, healthcare, etc. Incumbents in these industries are very large and entrenched, but they are legacy players, making them slow to adopt new technology. For the most part, they have failed to meet the needs of our digital-native, mobile-savvy generation and their experiences lag behind consumer expectations of today (evidenced by low, or sometimes even negative, NPS scores). Rebuilding the experience from the ground up is sometimes the only way to satisfy today’s consumers in these massive markets.

2. Step-functionally better consumer experience versus the status quo

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